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ANATOMY  AND  PHYSIOLOGY
REVISION
 
Complete these sentences
The human body has BILLIONS OF CELLS especially developed so that each type of tissue CREATES ORGANS on behalf of the rest of the body. These tissues are further grouped together CREATING SYSTEMS.
 
An ORGAN IS A GROUP OF TISSUES arranged in a certain way to carry out SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS, e,g. the stomach, heart, kidneys, etc.
The organs are again grouped together to form SYSTEMS.
 
A SYSTEM is A GROUP OF ORGANS, which together carry out one of the essential functions of the body.
 
The following systems, grouped together, form the Human Body
 
 
 
 
 
THE  SKELETAL  SYSTEM
Is A GROUP OF BONES which gives
FRAMEWORK to the body.
 
BONES AND MUSCLES – concerned
with THE MOVEMENT AND PROTECTION of the Body.
 
SKELETON – RIGID FRAMEWORK
gives SHAPE and SUPPORT to the Body,
and is JOINTED to permit MOVEMENT
 
THE  MUSCULAR  SYSTEM
Bones are moved at joints by the
FLEXING (EXPANDING &CONTRACTION) of
MUSCLES attached to them.
 
FACIAL muscles are involved in
CHEWING, EXPRESSION, SPEECH.
The deep muscles of the THORAX
linking the ribs, contract and relax in
THE LUNGS – FOR BREATHING.
 
The muscles of the ABDOMEN are
arranged in sheets and PROTECT delicate
abdominal organs. They also HELP
to compress abdominal contents and aid in
DIGESTION, DEFICATING
  and in the process of
CHILDBIRTH in the female.
In the LEGS are found the most
powerful muscles of the body –
especially those acting on the hip joint.
 
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
Carries BLOOD/OXYGEN to the tissues
and waste products away from them.
It is the chief TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
of the body and consists of the following :
·         BLOOD
·         HEART
·         BLOOD VESSELS– a closed system
of TUBES consisting of :
·         VEINS
·         ARTERIES
·         CAPILLARIES
 
 
 
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Allows EXCHANGES OF GASSES between the
body and the environment.
It consists of the following :
·        LUNGS
·      NASAL
·        RIBS
·        LARYNX
·        TRACHIA
·        DIAPHRAGM
·        BREATHING MUSCLES
·        STERNUM
·        VERTEBRAE
·        BRONCHAE
·        THORACIC CAGE
 
 
 
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Is concerned with PROCESSING and
ABSORBTION of food and the ELIMINATION
of waste matter.
It consists of the following :
·        MOUTH/SALIVA
·        PHARYNX
·        ESOPHOGUS
·        STOMACH
·        INTESTINES (SMALL)
·        LIVER
·        GALL BLADDER
·        PANCREAS
·        INTESTINES (LARGE)
·        RECTUM AND ANAL AREA
 
 
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Produces HORMONES which control a A VARIETY OF FUNCTIONS.
Although each ENDOCRINE GLAND has specific functions, all are interdependent.
Overactivity or Underactivity of any one of them affects the whole system.
This system consists of the following DUCTLESS GLANDS
·     PITUITARY
_________
·        PINEAL
·        THYRIOD
·        PARATHYROID
·        THYMUS
·        ADRENAL GLANDS
·        PANCREAS
·        OVARIES
·        TESTES
 
 
THE URINARY SYSTEM 
Together with the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and
the Skin, the KIDNEYS are the chief
EXCRETORY ORGANS of the body.
 
The URINARY SYSTEM consists of :
·        KIDNEYS
·        URETERS
·        URETHRA
·        BLADDER
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Is concerned with the CONTROL and
INTEGRATION of all bodily functions.
It makes it possible for us to be AWARE
of our environment and to respond to
CHANGES within that environment.
It consists of the SPINAL COLUMN
and NERVES, some of which carry
messages from the tissues to the
BRAIN and others from the brain to
the TISSUES.
Incoming messages are carried by SENSORY NERVES
and the BRAIN is able to interpret such messages in
the light of experience.
Outgoing messages from the brain are
carried by THE MOTOR NERVES and result
in ACTIVITY AND MOVEMENT.
 
 
THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
 
The Lymphatic System consists of :
 
 
·        LYMPH VESSELS
·        LYMPH NODES & LYMPHATIC TISSUE
·        SPLEEN
·        THYMUS
·        TONSILS
 
 Lymph fluid picks up DEAD CELLS, BACTERIA
and PROTEINS that have been removed from
the blood.
Lymph fluid returns the protein to
the BLOOD
The LYMPH GLANDS remove the dead cells
and BACTERIA from the lymph fluid.
The SPLEEN helps clean dead
CELLS and bacteria from the blood.
The spleen is located in the
 
LYMPH GLANDS ARE SITUATED
 
·        Behind the ears
·        In front of the ears
·        Under the lower jaw
·        In the front of the neck
·        At the back of the neck
·        Above the clavicle
·        Under the arms
·        In the groin
 

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