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Christian Ethics – Lessons 3 & 4 Test 2
 
1.           The first reason is the light that the Old Testament can throw on Jesus as we note what he retained from his heritage and what he gained from higher insights. The second reason is the need to fully understand the Old Testament and to see it in perspective. The third reason is that we get a sense of concreteness from the social teachings of the prophets.
 
2.           Israel's faith was not fully monotheistic before the sixth century BC.
 
3.           It was a covenant of grace.
 
4.           One test was circumcision and the other was the requirement of keeping the law.
 
5.           The most primitive code in the Old Testament is the ceremonial code in Exodus 34.
 
6.           The Covenant Code illustrates the blending of moral and religious considerations, and within the religious aspect the mixture of adoration and gratitude with the ceremonial observances.
 
7.           'The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath' is found in St Mark's Gospel chapter 2, verse 27
 
8.           a)  The law was not the barren interpretation that was made in Jesus' time or even in ours. It was based on the righteous and sovereign rule of God who demanded its observance.
b)  The Hebrew's moral outlook was intensive but tended to favour the Hebrews themselves or  those living within the Hebrew community. The Hebrews also believed that this was what God wanted regardless of what the prophets said.
c)  Jesus came to fulfil the law not destroy it or even change it, but to widen its scope so that the too narrow interpretation placed on it by those in authority could be looked at afresh and revitalised.
 
9        The first deduction is that the prophets proceeded from the assumptions of the covenant, never doubting that Israel was God's chosen people.
The second deduction is that the prophets were Hebrews and Hebrews only and only worked within this context.
The third deduction is that monotheism and universalism is implicit in their preaching although in itself it was a late development.
The fourth deduction is that the prophets saw sin not as a human failing but as actual sin against and they could therefore criticise kings as well as ordinary people for their sinful ways.
The fifth deduction is that they spoke to the situation prevailing at the time within the Hebrew community.
 
10.       Jesus took the following concepts from the Old Testament:
First, He shared with the Old Testament the structure of moral living which was God-centred.
Second, His ethical principles were those of Judaism, but with a different emphasis making them new in impact.
Third, He made the attainment of the kingdom of God the main point of his teaching rather than the triumph of Israel.
 
Derek Kemp
 

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