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Lesson 19 The Holy Roman Empire Rate Topic: -----

#1 User is offline   Rev. Dr. Gary 

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Posted 10 September 2008 - 10:29 AM

This is for questions pertaining to Lesson 19.

1. What factors contributed to the collapse of the Carolingian Empire?

2. What is feudalism? How was the church influenced by feudalism? How did the church attempt to lessen the excesses of the feudal lords?

3. What was involved in the investiture controversy? How did this plague church-state relations in the Middle Ages?
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#2 User is offline   Frank Selden 

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Posted 26 March 2009 - 08:17 AM

[quote name='Rev. Dr. Gary' post='51570' date='Sep 10 2008, 06:29 PM']This is for questions pertaining to Lesson 19.

1. What factors contributed to the collapse of the Carolingian Empire?

1) Teutonic inheritance practices played a significant role in the crumbling of the Carolingian Empire. Teutonic inheritance called for the division of land among the sons. When Louis the Pious died after a tumultuous reign in A.D. 840, the rows fomented among his sons made the collapse of the Carolingian Empire a forlorn conclusion. Louis the German got the eastern part. Charles the Bald got the western part. Lothair got the long center part that stretched from the North Sea to the Adriatic as well as the imperial title.

2) The fading of urban life and trade after the fall of the Roman Empire made people go back to an agrarian existence. The chaotic landscape of the 9 th century A.D. encouraged feudalism in Western Europe. In feudalism the balance of power shifts to the local lord and away from the central government, further weakening the powr of the empire and promoting more feudal power.

3) The Vikings, Slavs, and Magyars had significant sway in this also. Hailing from Scandinavia, the Vikings caused havoc in Western Europe from the late 8 th century A.D. to the 10 th century. Any town or monastery along the coast or navigable river would get a visit from the Vikings. The Vikings, many of them, finally settled in England and after much fighting joined their kinsmen the Anglo-Saxons who had come earlier. As a result the Christian culture that had been established in Ireland and England during the Dark Ages was destroyed or at least set back.

2. What is feudalism? How was the church influenced by feudalism? How did the church attempt to lessen the excesses of the feudal lords?

Feudalism can be seen as a political system founded on land possession for which one gave military and other services to the lord who granted possession of the land. The local lord gave good government in the immediate area where he owned the land. Society was demarcated into protectors [feudal knights], producers [serfs who were the basis for the feudal economy], and prayers [priests of the church]. The individual was subject to the corporate. Every person had a master in this feudal hierarchy.

Being a great landowner, the church could not avoid being influenced by feudalism. Gifts of land were held in feudal tenure by abbots and bishops. As God
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#3 User is offline   graham 

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Posted 11 April 2009 - 08:36 AM

1. What factors contributed to the collapse of the Carolingian Empire?

The Carolingian empire collapsed rapidly after the death of Charlemagne due to the Teutonic inheritance practice which was not based upon primogeniture and therefore led to automatic division and systemic weakness and to the relative incompetence of his sons whose squabbles over the spoils furthered exacerbated the situation. After the death of Louis the Pious in 840, the hostility between his sons led to the establishment of political divisions roughly equivalent to later France and Germany which generated enduring conflict for the following eleven centuries. Other factors were the activities of invading peoples such as the Vikings, Slavs and Magyars at a time when the response was sporadic and disorganised and the impact of the evolving feudal system which was based upon a greater co-dependence bewteen ruler and the most prominent subjects. Nonetheless, the legacy of the Carolingian Empire was considerable, arguably more significant for the future than its actual existence had been for the Europe of Charlemagne!

2. What is feudalism? How was the Church influenced by feudalisim and how did it attempt to lessen the excesses of the feudal lords?

Feudalism was a system based upon loyalty, service and obligations in return for landholding; society was organised as a pyramidal structure with the ultimate obedience given to the king and where each class in society owed allegiance to their lord in return for protection. Although the church owned considerable land in its own right (often 30% of the total), it could not avoid the impact of the feudal system in its day-to-day dealings with the feudal lords who were its neighbours. The peasants often felt a sense of divided loyalties and, of course, their offerings to the local church or abbey were now claimed in part by the landowners whose need to contribute soldiery to foreign wars, pay taxes to the king and maintain their own enhanced dignity (including private armies) led to greater pressure on local resources. The feudal lords tended to regard themselves as local plenipotentiaries and to become engaged in internecine conflicts in which the church might
become involved. The church did try to limit the adverse effects of the feudal system on the peasantry (if only to protect its own sources of income, the cynics might say) with agreement named The Peace of God, which attempted to ban private quarrels, the pillaging of sacred sites and attacking the unarmed and The Truce of God which restricted opportunities for fighting to around 100 days per year by banning it between Wednesday sunset to Monday sunrise and on holy days. Churches and monasteries were also to be places of sanctuary for refugees from the fighting whilst women, clergy and peasants were not to be harmed.

3. What was involved in the Investiture Controversy? How did this plague church-state relations in the Middle Ages?

The Investiture Controversy surfaced in the eleventh century in a dispute between the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII over the appointment of church officials, especially of episcopal rank. Such men were wont to be crucial to secular government as well so that the monarch had an interest in the appointment of those well-disposed to his interests. In 1075, a Lateran Council ruled that such appointments were the prerogative of the church alone and a year later, Henry IV was excommunicated and deposed by the Pope. This led the German nobles to take full advantage of this to enhance their power and fifty years of war within the empire ensued as well as the appointment of anti-popes by the Emperor. Finally, in 1121, Henry V was reconciled to the church and accepted Pope Calixtus II who entered Rome and drove out Gregory VII. The Concordat of Worms of 1122 purported to resolve the situation by reserving the right of appointment to the church but allowing secular rulers a measure of unoffical input. In fact, the issue simmered throughout the coming centuries and re-surfaced dramatically form time to time as in the reign of Louis XIV who was excommunicated because of his insistence on appointing certain French bishops in accordance with certain historical
practice allegedly reserved to the monarchy.
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#4 User is offline   dsurvivor 

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Posted 05 May 2009 - 11:56 AM

1. What factors contributed to the collapse of the Carolingian Empire?
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#5 User is offline   Edward lindsay 

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Posted 25 April 2010 - 10:52 PM

1. Charlemagne's offspring could not keep it together after his death and the Teutonic Inheritance that called for the division of lands and feudalism.


2. Basically you were knights and Surfs or servants what you were born into is where you stayed you did not move up in social status.


3. Weather God on Earth was represented by the Church or State and who delegated authority was it the Roman Pontiff the Church or was it the state.
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#6 User is offline   AmyLong 

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Posted 16 September 2010 - 03:21 PM

1. Charlemagne's offspring did not have the intelligence that he did. They could not rule and keep the empire that he had built together. Along withe acat that a law was enforced that the son's split up their land which made it even more difficult to keep everything under one rule.

2. It seemed that at that time whatever you social class you were born into that was what you were. There really was no advancement in the ranks for anyone. If you were born a knight you were a knight, a surf was a serf and so on.

3. It was in question who represented God on earth Church or state. It made a constant struggle for power so that someone could claim the power of God.
Gwen Simpson
I have been ordained through the Universal Life Church , and I post spiritual articles at ULC and at the Universal Life Church Seminary course listings. I'm also a martial artist and I teach Sacramento Martial Arts. I support the Universal Life Church Article Directory, and have blogs that contain ULC Seminary Essays and Wedding Ceremonies.
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#7 User is offline   William 

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Posted 13 June 2013 - 09:43 AM

1.The successors of Charlemagnes rule were incompetent and died without a tight grip on the power of the Empire
2. Feudalism was a societal structure of lords and serfs.... There was constant feudal in-fighting and it was the Church that prevented fighting during holidays, holy ground and during days of the week. The Church was seen as a relief from the political and social strife of the time.
3. It was a Row as to who was in charge.... Either the Pontiff or Governance.
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